MAPS and CIRCLES for Inclusive Education
Marsha Forest & Jack Pearpoint
Annie, Tommy, Jay, Andreas, Katherine, Becky, Erica, Mark,
Greg, Miller. Katherine. Peter... the list is too long and too
painful to produce. These are the names of children who have
been rejected by the public schools of Canada and the USA. They
are black and white, girls and boys, youth and teenagers. In
common is their parent's simple dream of having their children
accepted and educated in one quality school alongside their neighbors.
In common is their rejection from the schools of our nations.
In common is the label "disabled" pinned on them, like
the yellow star pinned on people labeled Jewish, and the pink
triangle pinned on people labeled homosexual, during that terrible
period called World War 11.
The Nurenberg Trials confirmed to the world that pinning yellow
stars and pink triangles on people was unacceptable. It was ruled
a crime against "humanity". But today, no Nurenberg
trials have ruled that IQ scores and disability labels are often
death sentences to the children we "place" into "disability"
boxes. Special education is one such disability box that we know
now is neither special nor indeed educational in any sense of
the word. This is no longer hot "news". The data has
been in for several years. The outcome for people labeled "disabled"
is a life of loneliness, poverty, and joblessness - not an outcome
any family would choose for their sons or daughters. Despite
this data, segregation still thrives and is considered an "acceptable"
educational placement and practice. It is still OK to talk of
"them" and "us".
Segregation is NOT acceptable. It is bad pedagogy (for ALL
children). It is uneconomic, immoral and unethical. In short,
segregation must stop. This article is about how to integrate
children, end segregation, and improve educational outcomes for
No matter where we go, people are talking about the "Butwhatabout"
Kids. Some of the presently popular euphemisms include hard-to-serve,
at-risk, etc. Why don't we just admit it outright. These are
children and teenagers who scare us to death, who threaten our
mortality and who make us vulnerable and nervous. That is natural,
normal and human. What is unnatural, abnormal, unacceptable and
inhuman is our systematic "boxing" and subsequent rejection
of the people - or the illusions about people that we fear. We
encourage people to square off with the fear, conquer it, and
welcome all people back to our communities, complete with their
mortality, vulnerability and incredible capacities to teach us
about what is important in life.
WE CALL FEAR
The first task is to face this monster called fear. Mythology
tells us that most "fear" monsters are slain merely
by facing them. We don't tell teachers to give up their fears.
Rather, we suggest they face them head on; take up a mighty sword
and slay them, one by one.
FEAR is the most frequent word we hear as we talk with educators.
"Don't be afraid," many people say. Not us. We encourage
teachers to, "Be afraid! Talk about the fear. Name it! Get
it on the table!" When the fear monster is out in the open,
you can kill it, go around it, or learn to ignore it. You can
manage it. But as long as the fear is unnamed, the fantasy will
frighten us more than any reality. Fear of the unknown; fear
of failure; fear of not knowing what to do; fear of mortality:
these are real fears. Once faced, fears can be overcome.
When we meet fearful teachers, we offer a little "monster
powder". We propose an alternative to these fearful human
mortals who are just like us. Our "monster powders"
are state of the art strategies that build confidence and a better
future for all our children. MAPS and CIRCLES of FRIENDS are
tools which take the responsibility off one person and puts planning
in the hands of a team comprised of school personnel, family
and the children themselves.
MAPS and CIRCLES are based on common sense and don't cost
a great deal of money.
But Beware. These strategies require three important pre-conditions:
1. The desire to slay the monster of fear.
2. The desire and ability to learn and change.
3. The desire and ability to work as a member of a team.
We feel if teachers cannot meet these criteria, they should
consider another career!
Strong words you say. You bet. These times call for strong
words and bold deeds. The crimes of illiteracy, miseducation,
and rejection can no longer be tolerated. We know too much. Systems
like Johnson City in New York and the Hamilton Wentworth Catholic
School Board in Ontario, Canada prove what can be done. These
beacons in a still-too-bleak educational landscape have no more
money and no more brainpower than any other system.
What distinguishes them is leadership with guts, clear values,
and the vision of an outcome that spells success for all children
entering the doors of our schools today.
We no longer have to prove that quality education can work.
It can. It is now up to others to justify why they cannot deliver
quality education to all their children as they do with daily
success in Johnson City or Hamilton.
Reversing Rejection - Full Inclusion for
The Centre for Integrated Education and Community is devoted
to reversing the rejection of the Beckys, Katherines, Judiths,
Suneels, Sunitas, etc. We are developing state of the art strategies
and training workshops to help systems and individuals reverse
the terrible tide of segregation and engage the challenge and
thrill of full inclusion for all. Because we are white water
canoe and kayak enthusiasts, we see the path like a white water
rapid -full of rocks and churning water - but a great challenge
and lots of fun!
No Magic Bullets; No Micro Wave Solutions;
Just Hard Work
We make no claim that a MAP or a CIRCLE as described in this
article is a magic bullet or microwave solution. These strategies,
developed and practiced for a decade with live children in real
school systems in Canada and the USA, are simply tools in the
arsenal for quality education for all - a dream we believe to
be viable and necessary.
MAKING A MAP
This strategy has been pioneered and used by many teachers
and families in the past ten years. The laboratory has been two
school boards in Canada, (the Hamilton Wentworth Catholic School
Board under the leadership of Jim Hansen, and the Waterloo Region
Separate School Board under the Directorship of George Flynn.)
First and foremost, these two boards (approximately 20,000 students
each) believe wholeheartedly that:
* All students belong in regular classrooms - no ifs, ands
* Ordinary teachers can teach all children
* Necessary supports will be provided when necessary
* Quality education is a right not a privilege
* Outcomes must be success, literacy and graduation for all
* Creative alternatives will be available for populations
not succeeding in the ordinary fashion (i.e. they developed store-front
schools, cross age tutoring, alternative high school programming
A Cookbook Lesson
We love to eat and cook, A quote from the back cover of the
original 1973 version of Tassajara Cooking sums up our feelings
about the strategies we have developed:
"This is a book to help you actually cook - a cooking
book. The recipes are not for you to follow, they are for you
to create, invent, and test. It explains things you need to know,
and things to watch out for. There are plenty of things left
for you to discover, learn, and stumble upon. Blessings. You're
on your own. Together with everything."
We invite you to treat MAPS and CIRCLES as recipes from the
"Tassajara Inclusion Cookbook". MAPS & CIRCLES
are designed to help you do it ... not to do it for you. You
must "create, invent, and test. They explain things you
need to know, and things to watch out for. There are plenty of
things left for you to discover, learn, and stumble upon. Blessings.
You're on your own. Together with everything." Read
on in the Tassajara spirit.
We recently received a phone call that illustrates the dangers
of seeing strategies as "magic bullets." The organizer
of an upcoming workshop called and asked, "Will the participants
at your workshop really leave knowing how to include all kids
in regular classes?"
Marsha took a deep breath and answered in a friendly but firm
tone, "No. In two days you don't learn brain surgery
and in two days no one person can learn "IT" i.e. how
to integrate all children magically into school. We hope the
participants will get-a tasty appetizer which will give them
the inspiration and conj6dence to begin, and to continue to get
more in-depth knowledge, training and experience of the issue."
The caller reframed the concern, and inquired if a reasonable
revised objective might be that everyone leaves the workshop
feeling confident that this was the right direction for their
school system. We said that too was our hope, and that most people
would be ready to dive right in and try it out!
It is glib to think that anyone will learn all they need to
know about dealing with children with complex needs in two days.
But, with consistent use of MAPS and Circles strategies, as well
as other exciting state-of-the-art approaches, within a year,
we have found great success in being able to include almost all
What we've learned in ten years is that we can welcome ALL
students into our nation's schools and classrooms - if we want
to. This is regardless of the complexity of children's needs
- be they physical, mental or emotional. After all, "untrained"
parents have been doing it for years. As one of our friends said
after the birth of her daughter - "Jane didn't come with
a set of directions. If we figured it out, so can a school. After
all, teachers are paid for it; we're not. And they are trained
educators, and we're not! It should be easier for them. Basically,
it is very simple. If they want Jane, they'll figure it out just
like we did. All it takes is time and love."
MAPS is a collaborative action planning process that brings
the key actors in a child's life together. In the spirit of cooperation,
this team creates a plan of action to be implemented in a regular
classroom setting. It is NOT a case conference or an individual
Education Plan (IEP), (but the results can certainly be used
on any IEP form).
MAPS is facilitated by two people - practicing what it preaches
- "together we're better". One person acts as the MAPS
RECORDER making a public record (preferably using graphics) on
large chart paper. This is an essential element of a MAP. The
other person is the HOST who welcomes the group, explains the
process and facilitates the MAP.
Essential elements of a MAP:
1. Co-facilitation (Host and Recorder) (can be interchanged)
2. Graphic recording with colorful markers on chart paper
3. Hospitality - a personal and informal atmosphere (snacks,
beverages, tokens of thanks)
4. All key actors in child's life present and participating
5. Focus person and their siblings and friends present and
6. Key issues addressed: WHAT DOES the CHILD and/or FAMILY
7. Decision to meet again (with a date)
8. Concrete plan of action (actual things to do right away)
Without these essential elements, the plan is not a MAP. It
may be something similar but a MAP must have the above eight
elements (or have a good reason to leave an element out.)
A MAP is made up of Questions that can be conceptualized as
a circle. Each key must be used but there is no particular order.
The facilitators decide on their direction depending on the needs
of the group.
Setting the tone and introductions:
Before the MAP, the facilitators set up the room in an informal
semi-circle with comfortable chairs. Chart paper and clean markers
should be ready. Snacks are available for people before the session
begins. Colorful nametags are ready. The facilitators invite
the group to be seated, introduce themselves, and then ask everyone:
"Please tell us who you are and explain your relationship
to Mark (the focus person)."
Question #1 - What is a MAP?
The facilitator asks the participants to think of a MAP and
asks, "What is a MAP?" Here's how one recent group
"A MAP shows direction.
It tells you how to get from one place to another.
It shows you how to find stuff.
A MAP tells you where to go."
"That's exactly what we're here to do. To show direction
for Mark's life, to help him and his family get from one
place (the segregated class) to another place (the regular class).
The MAP will also help us figure out how to find the "stuff"
that Mark needs. If we all work together, we can decide where
to go next. Together we can create a plan of action that we can
put into practice for Mark starting right away."
Question #2 - (which can also merge
with the dream Question #3) What is the Story?
"Please tell us your story. What are the most
important things that have happened since Mark was born? I know
you can go on and on with this, so I'll limit you to 5-7 minutes.
Tell us what you feel is really important for all of us to hear
and to know about Mark's story."
The facilitator must be careful not to make this a case history.
She/he must listen with all heart, soul and body. The recorder
writes the story - words, pictures and images. The facilitator
also asks the participants to listen with their hearts.
"Don't listen just with your ears. Listen with your
whole body. Don't be judgmental. This is not a trial. Try to
feel, hear what the person is telling you from inside - as if
it were your own story". We often ask this question
before the dream. It depends on the tone and mood of the group.
The recorder summarizes the story after the family or person
has completed their thoughts being sure that the facts are correct
and the essential elements of the story are there. The recorder
should request the assistance of the MAPS team to correct spelling,
facts, etc. Making simple errors (especially with people's names)
can be very upsetting to some people, so legitimize corrections.
Request assistance. This increases group participation and ownership.
Question #3 - What is Your Dream?
This is really the heart and soul of the MAP. The facilitator
must build an atmosphere so that the family feels comfortable
to say what their dreams, hopes and wants really are.
"If you could dream the dream you really want, if
you could have anything with no holds barred, what do you really
truly want for yourselves and for Mark? Money is no object. Don't
hold back. Let yourselves be free to really say what you want.
Don't ask for what you think you can get. This is different.
This is what you realty want and dream about or pray for."
There is often a deathly silence at this moment. It is essential.
Do not interrupt. Wait. Allow the family time to build up their
courage to get out their real feelings and hopes. If this is
rushed, the whole MAP may be futile.
When a facilitator asks the question about people's dreams
with a full heart, so that people gain the confidence to risk
stating their buried dreams, profound things often happen. A
pattern has emerged after years of asking this question. Parents
all over the continent have told us that the MAP empowered them
to dream again. As one Colorado parent stated, "A map
is a way of restoring the dream to a family". With older
teenagers or adults, the person states their own dream. The MAP
restores a dream to the individual.
"BUT", someone out there is thinking. "Butwhatabout"
the person who can't speak? We have done many MAPS with children
labeled "non-verbal". Although these children don't
speak, they certainly communicate. And if the group knows the
child well, someone will be able to articulate their own dreams
for the child, and also the dreams they think the child might
"If Mark could speak, what do you think his dream
Families often weep openly as they tell us, "My dream
is that my child be happy, be included in school, walk or ride
to school with his sister, be invited to birthday parties, have
a hamburger with a friend, and have the phone ring just for him."
One 12-year-old girl told us "I want a trip to Hawaii
and a job with computers. Also a pet dog." She was clear
as a bell.
One parent of a medically fragile child told us, "I
want my child to have one real friend before she dies. My
nightmare is that my child will never know friendship."
(This little girl did die soon after, but because she had
moved into a district that welcomed her, the mother did get her
wish. The entire 3rd grade class attended her daughter's funeral.
The family knew that their daughter had made real friends in
her all-too-short life.
Question #4 - What Is my/our Nightmare?
Many people consider the Nightmare question the hardest to
ask. We believe it is one of the most important because the MAP
must identify the nightmare in order to avoid it. Unless the
MAP prevents the nightmare, it is a waste. Unless the OUTCOME
of the plan of action is to prevent the worst from happening,
all we are doing is simply busy-work.
In ten years of doing MAPS, these are the most consistent
responses to this question.
"My nightmare is that my child will end up in an institution
with no one to love him/her."
"We will die and my child will be alone and put in
a group home."
"My child will never have a friend."
No one has ever said.
"I'm afraid my child will not get an A in math or
"I'm afraid there won't be a proper functional
This question often breaks the ice between warring factions.
When school staff see that the parents want what every parent
wants for their children, barriers break down. We have seen wars
melt into peace treaties. A Kentucky woman broke down describing
how her eighteen-year-old son was currently living out his nightmare,
institutionalized, after having blinded himself
"Our family is in the nightmare," she wept.
"All we wanted, all we want now is some shred of human
kindness and friendship to our son.. "
We had to stop for coffee as all participants, both factions,
were in tears. For the first time, they were meeting as human
beings rather than as warriors on opposing sides of a placement
Facilitators do not have to be familiar with the person or the
family, but must know the MAPS process inside/out. The facilitators
must first and foremost believe 150% in the fact that full inclusion
is possible for all! The facilitators must be good listeners
- able to hear great pain without providing immediate advice
The teachers and school personnel are a part of the group. The
facilitators can be school personnel or an external team. The
facilitation role is to pull information from the group and move
it along into an action plan. The recorder creates a photograph
of what the group says with color, graphics, and also summarizes
what has been said before going to the next step.
Questions #1-4 are Part I of a MAP. It is often necessary
to take a break at this point. The second part will be lighter,
faster paced and move toward the action plan.
MAPS - Part II
Question #5 - Who is Mark?
We like to draw an outline of a person on the chart paper
and hand out post-it notes to change the mood and motion of the
MAP. This is a brainstorm session. Each person writes a word
or phrase (one per post-it note) and posts it on the outline.
This gives us a snap shot of the person. A recent MAP of a 12-year-old
boy had these words:
curious, handsome, determined, likes good snacks, always
hungry, potential, my son, dimples, pretty ordinary, my brother,
very active, pest, a little brat, somebody's great friend someday,
an interesting boy, lively, likes to play with drums, great family.
The recorder attempts to group the words to get a picture
of Mark. We sometimes ask, "What have other people said
about Mark in the past? What words have been used before in other
meetings?' In this case, these were the words previously
used to describe Mark:
retarded, developmental delayed, autistic, severely autistic.
These should be posted separately, but the recorder may want
to highlight the dramatic differences between the two portraits
of the same person.
Question #6 - What are Mark's strengths
and unique gifts?
Another list was generated:
happy, beautiful boy, loving, friendly. he can look
you in the eye and smile, gives a lot, he
has a 'look', helps to put things in perspective, makes you
Place "Post-its" all over an outline
of the Person
Question #7 - What does Mark like to do? What is Mark good
at? What are his needs?
This brainstormed list is important as it gives us many ideas
for the curriculum and daily program:
Mark likes to throw balls, play with ropes and strings,
climbing in parks, eating, relax, swim laps in the
pool, play in water puddles, go skating, play in clothes
closets, be with people.
By this point, we have generated an enormous volume of information
on Mark. We ask,
"First and foremost, what do we all need to make this
DREAM happen? What does Mark need? What does Martha (the teacher)
need? What does the family need? "
At this MAP, the only people present were Marks mom, dad,
teenage sister, and a dedicated teacher/friend. When it came
to Mark's needs, there was a real consensus that Mark 'needs
to be involved, and to meet people his own age." The
family needed him to meet other children so his mother could
begin to build a life of her own. The family agreed that a "worker"
(to help build community integration) would be a godsend. They
wanted that person to take Mark to local places where he could
"get involved" with other kids. The job description
for that person was developed from what was said at the MAP:
· Find places where he can meet kids
· Find kids to spend time with him
· Go to the youth centre
· Get involved in trips swimming and activities
· Develop more communication skills
Question #8: The Plan of Action:
When you frame the needs question carefully, it flows directly
into a plan of action. In some circumstances, i.e., planning
a curriculum, we might draw the timetable, and have the other
students brainstorm all the activities that Mark likes and could
do. Then, we explore the logistics. If Mark is going to get from
History to gym, and be dressed in 10 minutes, he will need help
- a guide. Who would be willing to help? We link specific people
to specific times, places, classes, and activities.
In this instance, the family enthusiastically agreed to plan
a pizza party at their home and invite some neighborhood kids
- that weekend. Together with Greg, the teacher/friend, they
started to look for a community integration facilitator. Greg
agreed to facilitate another MAP with a wider group in one month.
A date was set.
Concluding a MAP
A Map must be concluded. The recorder walks/talks the group
through a summary of the charts and presents the charts to the
family as a gift - along with other gifts i.e. a plant, a cake,
something sweet, and something that grows.
Before it ends, the host/facilitator asks each participant
one more process question.
"Will you give me one word, or a phrase to sum up
your experience of this MAP? Off the top of your head ... the
first word that springs to mind..."
Here's what this group said:
Mom: I'm relieved. Great session.
Dad: Very positive. Thanks.
Mark: (gives us all a really big smile.)
Greg: Fabulous and positive.
The metaphor for the MAP is a kaleidoscope. The kaleidoscope
is a magical toy, a mysterious and beautiful tool that changes
constantly. Through the eyepiece we see little bits of beautiful
color turning together into an ever-changing luminous melody
of color and light.
We see the kaleidoscope as the outcome of each MAP.
It is a medley of people working together to make something unique
and better happens. It is more than anyone can do alone. It proves
what we strongly believe -TOGETHER WE'RE BETTER!
CIRCLES OF FRIENDS
Stop. Take thirty seconds. Try to imagine a world in which
you did not have a single person who truly loved you. Imagine
having no family and no friends. Imagine that only paid personnel
see you in the morning and at bedtime. Imagine a world where
none of your peers spoke or walked. Take a moment to remember
how it feels to be that lonely and isolated.
Recently, we met a young woman who literally had no one in
her life. She had been abandoned by her parents at the age of
four and placed in a group home for children with "severe
to profound mental retardation". As we did her MAP, she
sat with us and listened intensely to the conversation. We were
told that she banged her head and screamed constantly. The person
we observed sat still for two hours and listened intently. What
did she hear? What did she understand? It is our belief that
she heard and felt our concern, that through her blind eyes she
saw love and people who were afraid for her life. We believe
she responded to that caring by sitting with us for two hours.
She is sixteen years old and knows no one her own age.
It was clear that an intentional circle needed to be
built immediately. Diane had been physically present in a regular
high school but spent her days in a segregated class. She was
present - but invisible. No one really knew her.
The school called together a group of teenagers and teachers
who expressed an interest in helping Diane.
"How would you feel if your life looked like Diane's?"
One young woman said quietly but without hesitation,
"I'd commit suicide."
"I'd sleep all the time.
I'd take drugs.
I'd kill someone."
They saw immediately that what Diane needed most was to be
with them - to get out of the segregated room. They brainstormed
places they could go with Diane. There was a rock concert coming
up. One student volunteered to take Diane with her and her other
friends. Another decided to visit Diane and have dinner with
her at the group home. The students thought Diane would like
the music and cooking classes, which were noisy, and the teachers
were "pretty cool". The ideas flew. Diane sat through
the meeting with a smile as she gently rocked back and forth,
back and forth.
The Circle Exercise
Several teachers decided to get involved. Rather than blaming
themselves for what they had not done in the past, they switched
their energy into actions they could deliver in the future.
The result: six months later, Diane has regular visitors to
her group home; she has gone out more in six months than In the
past ten years; and one teacher and student seem to have formed
a special bond with her. They have invited Diane to their homes
for dinners and Sunday outings. It's a good start. Best of all,
Diane is out of the segregated room and goes to music, cooking
and other regular classes. She hangs out in the lunchroom, and
has stopped poking the comers of her eyes and screaming as much
as before. Is Diane "cured"? No! Does she now have
people to talk to, things to do, and a life to look forward too?
Yes! Equally important, Diane's classmates are learning and gaining
even more than Diane. They are getting "experience"
(hands on training has always been the best) in problem solving
(number one issue in the curriculum) with a REAL and relevant
problem. They have to create curriculum, timetables and trouble
shoot with Diane. They are learning to manage teachers, manage
behavior and confront values issues. Their acquaintance/friendship
with Diane may be one of the most important learning activities
of their lives. There is still a long way to go, but the circle
has started. Diane has a dream, and her new friends are part
CIRCLE AT CAMP
Norman wanted to go to camp, but everywhere he and his family
went they were told that Norman's needs were too Treat. One young
counselor who had completed one of our workshops decided o put
the learning into action. He wrote is this letter, which illustrates
the simplicity and complexity of the idea of a CIRCLE.
"We decided Norman could attend our camp. That was
a big step in the right direction. I had all the kids together
in the recreation hall and I gave my little speech. 'A circle
of friends is a support group that helps any camper having problems
feel more welcome and included.' I was received with blank stares.
0ops, I thought, I better look at my course notes again. I blew
it that tune."
"After bombing with this great opening statement, I simply
asked the kids to talk about Norman, who they had met that morning.
What do you think Norman can do all day at camp?' Boom! Everyone
was talking at once. That was a question ten year olds could
relate to - it wasn't a lecture on circles.
"The meeting lasted about twenty minutes, ending with
suggestions about how they could do things together with Norman.
I asked for a smaller group of volunteers to help me plan Norman's
day. EVERYONE VOLUNTEERED.
"Norman's biggest challenge and the reason he had
been rejected by every other camp in the universe was "weak
bladder control." Several people (adults) had suggested
that Norman should sleep in a separate building to "hide"
"I decided (with Norman's permission of course) to
put the issue out in the open. The children suggested (quite
matter-of-factly) that they take turns waking Norman up in
the night to go to the bathroom. It never occurred to them
(and they rejected outright) the suggestion that he sleep in
another building! The counselors volunteered to take turns helping
"Many baseball games, slumber parties, canoe and splashing
trips later; Norman no longer requires a "one-to-one"
worker. His bladder problems are getting better (only twice a
week instead of every night. Norman's circle of supporters (now
a smaller group of real potential friends) meets for an hour
every four days. The children and counselors really look forward
to it. So does Norman. Norman's circle has become a place for
all involved to get support. Last week Norman wasn't even the
issue. The topic of the day was Tanya's bad temper.
"Finally I should tell you that the social worker
called me in shock regarding the progress Norman had made. She
asked me if we could work on budding a circle in his school and
in his group home community this Fall. I told her I would love
to come and help one of the school people become a facilitator.
I guess I really learned a lot in the workshop on MAPS and CIRCLES.
Norman was my chance to try it out myself. It was the best experience
of my career. I'm launched.
Thanks and Love.
To us MAPS and CIRCLES are like building a good foundation
for a house. What good is a castle if it is made on sand? What
good are communication skills if you have no one to talk to?
What good is physical mobility if you have nowhere to go? What
good is life itself if you have no one to share it with?
The Centre for Integrated Education and Community (CIEC) is
busy refining its training institutes and workshops so that we
can spread the word about the beauty that lies in the heart of
inclusion. We have no pretences that we have THE answer. We do
however have years of experience, and hundreds of success stories
that tell us full integration and quality education are indeed
We have no illusion that in a short article we can do more
than whet your appetite to learn more. Please write us
with your questions and concerns. We see ourselves as problem-solvers
and facilitators, not answer givers. We enjoy working with people
who see problems as challenges to be solved. This final story
illustrates our point.
We had just finished a weeklong white-water canoe/kayak course.
We thought that our friend Judith Snow might really enjoy a raft
trip down the incredible river we had run in our smaller craft.
We approached the staff at the Madawaska Kanu Centre. We told
them that Judith traveled around in a wheelchair, which she drove
with her thumb. We explained she only had use of her mouth and
thumb for mobility.
Before we got the words out, these energetic rafters were
planning where Judith would sit, how many extra people they'd
need to carry her into the raft, and how she could enjoy actually
going in the water to body surf
They were beyond us. We only had her in the boat. They
had her in the water too. What a difference! Most people look
at Judith and only see PROBLEMS. To the rafters, this would be
fun, a challenge. If she wanted to go, they would take her. There
was no question. End of story.
How refreshing! If we can create the opportunity for Judith
to go rafting and surfing in the Madawaska River, surely we can
create the opportunity for all the children in Canada and the
U.S.A. to attend school alongside their neighbours and friends.
There are simply no more excuses! Judith hasn't decided if she
really wants to go rafting, but the vast majority of families
have decided that they want to be welcomed in their neighborhood
schools. Attitudes are the major barrier and are no longer an
adequate excuse. We must welcome all children now. It is their
right. Our future depends on it. There is simply a need for action
to welcome people
of all ages
into full life
at home, school,
work and play.
Marsha Forest & Jack Pearpoint
"What's a Map?"
It is always the first question. It was so common, we incorporated
it as the very first question in a series of "8 KEY MAPS
In workshops to implement the MAPS process, we begin by asking
the participants: "WHAT IS A MAP?" A recent group answered
- Something that gives direction
- A thing that helps you get somewhere
- Routes to different places
- Opens new ways to get anywhere
- To help you find your place
- A way to find a new way
- Stops you from getting lost
A Short History:
MAPS were originally designed by a team of educators who were
searching for ways to help welcome children with disabilities
back into regular schools and classrooms.
The concept of MAPS has now expanded. We see MAPS as a tool
to help both organizations and individuals who are at risk of
being isolated, institutionalized, left out, kicked out or locked
out of the mainstream of life. This includes populations of people
such as our older citizens, people with behavioral challenges,
people in trouble with the law, people on the streets, people
with mental health problems, and organizations who help these
A MAP IS NOT and A MAP IS...
It is important at the outset to state clearly what a MAP
is and what a MAP is NOT:
1. A MAP is NOT a trick, gimmick, quick fix, or a microwave
solution to complex human problems. It is NOT a one shot
session that will provide the magic bullet to blast a vulnerable
person into the life of the community.
A MAP is a problem-solving approach to the complex
human issues of life. It can and must be done as often as needed.
At its core, it is PERSONAL, COMMON SENSE and FROM THE HEART.
A MAP must ask over and over again - DOES WHAT WE ARE DOING MAKE
SENSE FOR THIS PERSON OR ORGANIZATION?
2. A MAP is not a replacement for an Individual Education
Plan (IEP). A MAP session may help provide information for
an IEP or some other needed legal documentation, but it is not
a substitute and must not be treated as such. In a MAP, the people
giving input are personally and/or professionally involved in
the person's life. MAPS participants and contributors must be
people who know the person or organization intimately, not simply
people who have tested or given intermittent therapy to a person.
3. A MAP is not controlled by experts in order to design
a neat program package.
The outcome of a MAP must be a PERSONALIZED PLAN OF ACTION
that has three criteria:
a. The plan is personalized i.e. tailor made for the person
or organization. It is a one-of-a-kind MAP.
b. The person is at the heart of the MAP.
c. The plan assists in bringing the person or organization
closer and closer into the daily life of the school or community.
4. A MAP is not a tool to make any segregated setting better.
MAPS was designed to liberate people from institutional
care. It is only for people and organizations trying to figure
out together how to get a person fully included in life.
5. A MAP is not an academic exercise. It is a genuine
personal approach to problem- solving. A MAP is for people who
are vulnerable and outcome decisions have life and death implications
for how the person will live his or her life. It is not a professional
controlled/expert model/top-down management tool. It is a
group, problem solving, cooperative and collaborative team approach
6. A MAP is not a Neutral Tool. The MAP facilitator
must be skilled in group process, have leadership ability, have
a problem-solving orientation, and most of all, have values that
are clearly in favour of fully inclusive education and living.
MAPS makes the value-judgment that it is better for all of us
to figure out how to live together than to put people in little
(or big) segregated boxes. MAPS facilitators must have a clear
vision and share beliefs favouring the road of inclusion in all
aspects of life.
7. MAPS is not talk. It is talk and Action. A MAP gives
clear direction and takes action steps to move in the direction
of inclusion. Most of all, MAPS is ongoing. It is a life
long process of figuring out how to prevent the nightmare of
segregation and how to enter into relationships that will lead
to physical, mental and spiritual well-being.
8. The metaphor for the MAP is a KALEIDOSCOPE. The
KALEIDOSCOPE is a magical toy, a mysterious and beautiful tool
that changes constantly. Through the eyepiece we see little bits
of color turning together into an ever-changing luminous melody
of color and light.
We see the KALEIDOSCOPE as the outcome of each MAP. It is
a medley of people working together to make something unique
and better happen. It is more than they can do alone.
A MAP is a tool for creating a struggling community where
all feel empowered to belong, to be needed, to be in control
of their own lives. Most of all, people should feel loved for
exactly who and what they are.
The Assumptions of the MAP Process:
1. All people are valuable and can contribute to life
on this globe.
2. All people have abilities, talents and gifts.
3. All people can learn!
4. Disability is a social construct. People are not
disabled. Systems disable people.
5. There is no need for special education or special
educators. There is a real need for support, services,
and educators who will reach out and nurture the potential of
6. The only label we recommend is a person's name. Labels
hide the fact that we really don't know what to do. After that,
we suggest adopting a problem-solving mode that creatively figures
out what to do for each unique individual.
7. Common sense is most Important and least common sense.
What We are Not Saying:
1. We are not saying that money isn't necessary. We
want all the money currently spent on testing, bussing and special
education to be spent on inclusion: i.e. teacher assistants,
child support workers, technical assistance, appropriate technology,
etc. Money is definitely needed to provide the necessary support.
However, "accessibility" is also a state of mind -
and budgets must not be used as excuses not to include people.
2. We are not saying that anyone should be "dumped"
without support and sit all day, unsupported in a regular
class. We are saying that a team can figure out alternatives
to segregated settings and find new, unique and better alternatives.
3. We are not saying that special educators are bad. We
are saying that they have a major role to play in shifting the
paradigm into "giftedness" rather than "disability".
Not only is there greater job security, it is a more rewarding
and exciting educational environment to live and work in.
We see all people as "gifted."
We believe all people are special unique and different. Because
of this, some people fall through the cracks, get missed by the
system or scare us half to death. We need to admit that we have
missed a lot of people. We need to welcome everyone back into
the mud, blood, gore and glory of life. Together, we need to
figure out how to right past wrongs.
MAPS is just one small way that helps people come together
to solve complex problems. MAPS is only necessary when you bump
into a problem that seems difficult. It is one of many tools.
Try it, use it, and write to us about your experiences. We find
MAP MAKERS a pretty exciting bunch of people who like the personal
and common sense team approach to creating a lifelong, caring
and common sense curricula.
Who Goes to a MAP? -
The size of the group that gathers for a MAP session can vary
from 2 to two dozen. The key ingredients for participants are
Intimate and Personal Contact with the individual being mapped.
A grandmother or neighbor, a friend - all are on equal footing
with doctors, lawyers and teachers. Parents and family usually
have the most to offer - if asked. Their perspectives are all
welcome in a MAP. Professionals are welcome too - but as individuals
- not as "therapists".
As groups grow, the age spectrum tends to become more comprehensive.
For example, for a MAP on a 10 year old, there would be several
peers, perhaps some teenagers, parents, relatives, and some individuals
with "elder" status.
Peer participation is critical. In a school situation, class/age/mates
have enormous untapped energy and creative capacity. They often
empower the teachers with new ideas, person power and just "straight
talk". The usual constraint is from us - adults. We often
restrain or downgrade the participation of peers. They are critical
and equal partners in the process.
There is a delicate question about whether the individual
being "mapped" should be present. It is a judgment
call. It works both ways. We hedge toward full participation.
People understand an enormous amount - more than we think. A
MAP is an upper for people who have been excluded. Why not give
them a boost. It also saves time in trying to explain it all
"Mapping" is a collaborative process. It is virtually
impossible to "do it alone". One individual focuses
on the questions - facilitating the group. The other is the Recorder.
They may interchange from time to time. The role of the facilitator
is relatively straight forward - even though it requires practice,
intuition and skill. Making it look easy comes from years of
Public recording is also a critical part of the process. There
are several reasons for the graphic recording.
1. Public recording acknowledges everyone's participation
- each person gets his or her mark on the paper.
2. It creates "images" that speed up the process.
People are able to visualize the elements in the questions -
and see both their dreams and their nightmares.
3. It creates a history. The records from each MAP are kept
and are often used to recall the past. Remarkably, many people
cannot believe the changes in their own perceptions and reality
until they see the actual records of an earlier MAP.
4. It maintains interest - and assists recall. It helps to
keep it moving.
5. It makes people feel good. They feel special. All this
for "me". All these people. All this - and all these
wonderful words - that are recorded for posterity (and for ACTION
The "recorder" need not be an artist. That is not
the point. However, it is vital that the individual print/write
clearly - and use "people's own words" and images.
You can supplement - but be sure everyone is included.
The Recorder and Facilitator are a TEAM. They must work well
together. Alternating roles can keep the MAP process moving.
But as usual, a solid value base and "practice" are
the secrets of the trade. If you are committed to the process,
try it. The way to learn is to do it.
MAPS: EIGHT KEY QUESTIONS
1. What is a MAP? Ask the participants.
2. What is the Story/History of the person, family? Ask
those most intimate with the person to relate the highlights
(and low points) of the individual's history (short - 10-15 minutes).
3. What Is the dream? What do you really hope for,
pray for, wish for? Do not be limited by money or reality. What
would you dare to dream if you could have anything you wanted?
Remind people not to ask for what they don't want. They just
might get it.
4. What is the nightmare? What is your greatest fear?
For us, this question is the hardest to ask and the most important
to get on the table. We must understand the nightmare in order
to prevent it. Preventing the nightmare is the measure of success.
The MAPS outcome must reflect an understanding of the nightmare.
All actions are targeted to prevent the nightmare from happening.
For families of children with disabilities, the nightmares are
"My n4htmare is that I will die and no one will be
there to love and care for my child."
"My child will end up in an institution - alone and
"My child will die without ever knowing real life
and experiencing friends." No parent has ever said:
"M nightmare is that my child won't attend university, won't
get an A on the next test, or won't learn how to spell."
5. Who is the Person? This question shifts the MAP
into a brainstorm mode. Everyone present is asked to give words
or phrases that describe the person in question. Here's an example
from a recent MAP: "Who is Margot?"
· 15 years old
· Lots of fun
· Active like crazy
· Very radical
· Bad (really means good)
To some, Margot is a -severely handicapped, autistic, mentally
retarded teenager." To the members of the MAPS group (three
of whom were teenagers), Margot was mostly "BAD!" (which
they translated to us as meaning good).
6. What are Margot's strengths, abilities, gifts, talents?
What does she do well? What does she like to do? This is
also a brainstorm. It should not take long. Generate a list.
7. What are Margot's real current NEEDS? Much like
the strengths, this is a brainstorm. Don't let people stop each
other. Just record people's words and perceptions. Keep it short.
Don't get bogged down.
In this MAP, there was uniform agreement that what Margot
needed most of all was:
· PLACES TO GO
· TO BE IN A REAL, REGULAR HIGH SCHOOL.
8. What is the Plan of ACTION for Margot and for the
MAPS team? All ideas were listed to start the process of getting
Margot into her local High School.
A MAP is a catalyst to begin a process of change. A
date was set for the next MAP. A commitment was made on the part
of several key professionals and two energetic and "bad/cool"
teenagers to meet as a smaller group. The MAP is on the drawing
board. Over the next months & years, it will take on more
detail and undergo constant revision. MAPS is a process. It is
not a one shot cure. But it certainly is a beginning to plan
and implement a better life.
For Information on MAPS process, write
Inclusion Press International
47 Indian Trail,
Canada M6R 1Z8.
Visit our Web site: http://inclusion.com
ACTION FOR INCLUSION Strategies for making Inclusion
happen by O'Brien
Refections on Inclusive Education: Short reflections
by the late Patrick Mackan C.R.- perfect for schools, churches.
Profound words from the heart of Father Pat.
FROM BEHIND THE PIANO, the Building of Judith Snow's Unique
Circle of Friends by Jack Pearpoint. A story of courage,
defeat and victory - more fascinating than fiction.
What's Really Worth Doing, by Judith Snow - combined in
CIRCLE OF FRIENDS by Bob and Martha Perske is a book
of the stories (and faces of inclusion. It is a must and can
be ordered through Abingdon Press in Nashville or Welch Publishing
Co. in Burlington Ont. (416-681-2760)
ReDiscovering MAPS: The most recent and comprehensive
MAPS video. Demonstrations of two different MAPS and two sets
of faciliators demonstrate a range of styles of facilitation
- as well as leading you throught the steps of the MAPS process.
How to make Inclusion happen involving a team of children, parents,
neighbors and professionals in a creative team. Sixty minutes.
Available through Inclusion Press. ($100 plus shipping
Miller's MAP: A 40 minute video. How to make
Inclusion happen involving a team of children, parents, neighbors
and professionals in a creative team. Co-facilitation. Colorful
Available through Inclusion Press. ($55 plus shipping and
With A Little Help From My Friends: A 60 minute
video featuring students involved in the MAPS process.
Available through Inclusion Press. ($55 plus shipping and
Kids Belong Together: A 24 minute video - the
story of teachers and children living and learning together.
MAPS In action featuring Patrick Mackan.
Available through Inclusion Press. ($55 plus shipping and
Copyright 2001 Inclusion Press
-- All rights reserved
This article is copied from
INCLUSION PAPERS, Strategies to Make Inclusion Work
pages 40-56 published by Inclusion Press